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Zach Rothenberg
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In her essay Catherine Gallagher describes how belief in a novel's story came to be replaced with "ironic credulity". She particularly describes how Fielding wholly embraced the imaginary nature of his stories, not attempting like previous authors to feign factual accuracy. This is especially apparent in Shamela, a work of fiction that retells and parodies another work of fiction. Without the advent of fictionality, Shamela would represent a disagreeing take on the true events occurring in Pamela. This would render either Fielding or Richardson the "true" teller of Pamela's life. Instead, Shamela is able to exist on its own as a critique of Pamela both conceptually and in form. I hope to explore exactly how Fielding embraces his audience's ironic credulity to create an effective parody.

Where I found this analysis especially interesting was in comparing the different texts in our corpus. While I knew from the start that these were all different works, subject to different results under analysis, I was still shocked to see how different they were. One this that stood out immediately to me was the prevalence of the word "said" in Pamela. While the word was used frequently in all works, it was used about three times more in Pamela than in any other. After further investigation words like "says" appear to be replacing it in other texts, especially in Shamela. In Shamela the use of "says" over said appears to be to make the protagonist appear less educated, like in the constructions "says she" vs "she said".
I also found interesting the frequency at which the main character's name was mentioned. In Pamela the word "Pamela" appears in the top 25, but is beaten by "Master". On the other hand, in Anti-Pamela, the main charater's name (Syrena) is the most used word in the entire text, without a single other character name in the top 25. This could be indicative of a difference in writing style or a difference in tone. In Pamela, the work primarily focuses on her own perception of her master, fixating on him. In Anti-Pamela, the text may spend more time focusing on its main character and less on the master. It is difficult to tell without reading the text whether this is true, but it points to a possible difference in character focus between the texts.

One interesting thing I noticed from looking at the data is the lack of named mentions in Robinson Crusoe. It makes sense, as the novel is written in first person from the perspective of a man who lives on an island for the most part devoid of human interaction. Not counting the references to "Friday", which Stanford NER erroneously categorized as dates, there are only 69 mentions of persons in the entire text. In Alice in Wonderland, Stanford NER recognizes 347 mentions of persons. However, once we remove the references to "Alice", most of which are due to the book's third person narration, both books have the exact same number of person labels. Including mentions of "Friday", Robinson Crusoe actually has more references to characters other than its protagonist than Alice in Wonderland. Although the book claims to be his solitary adventures, Crusoe is surrounded by company, especially Friday. In fact, Friday on his own is mentioned more than all of the non-protagonist character mentions in Alice combined. This highlights the role that Friday plays in the story. While he dehumanizes him in his descriptions, Crusoe fixates on Friday, dedicating 188 mentions to his name.

This map is somewhat hard to interpret, given the number of locations plotted. To remedy this I tried looking at the prevalence with which words appear in the text. Only seven words appear more than ten times: England(42), Providence(35), Lisbon(19), London(12), Brazil(11), Africa(11), and America(10). The extreme usage of England is no surprise, as Defoe is constantly trying to frame Crusoe's adventures in direct comparison to life in England, using phrases like "such as in England", "if we had been in England", and "as I had seen done in England". It is also interesting that the second most used place is Providence, which is used in the text in a far less literal sense than all other words. Crusoe uses the term in a Christian sense, reinforcing the novel's religious narrative. Looking at the map, there is a sharp contrast between the "new" and "old" worlds. Crusoe often refers to specific cities in Europe, covering the map in pins. On the other hand, non-european locations are painted with must wider strokes, with Crusoe referring to "Africa" and "America" as two of his most used places. I wonder whether this is an active choice by Defoe to only refer to locations that he thinks his reader will know or if he himself is only knowledgeable of these large distinctions.