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Shaoni C. White
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Upon creating the map from the deduplicated locations list, the most striking initial difference was one of form: the Google Maps version displays a series of points indicating locations superimposed over a map of the world (locations that Robinson Crusoe either visited or discussed), whereas the version printed in the novel displays the path taken by the protagonist. This means that the Google Maps lacks the attention to the seafaring journey that is essential to the novel. In paring down our imagining of the places referenced in the novel to a series of locations, the manner in which the original map places the act of traversing the globe at the center of the novel becomes increasingly clear. This highlights the nature of Robinson Crusoe as a travel narrative and a proto-colonial novel, one where places are only important insofar as they are connected to a wider vision of the globe as a connected entity, and furthermore, as an entity that may be traversed literally or non-literally by a middle-class individual. Additionally, the other primary difference between the two maps — that one is a mapping of places referenced and the other is a mapping of places the protagonist physically visited — reveals that although Crusoe's voyage to colonized or (through the gaze of empire) yet-to-be-colonized lands is central to how Robinson Crusoe imagines itself as a novel, the majority of references to location in the text are references to European locations. Non-European settings in this novel go largely unnamed despite being the subject of the narrative. This suggests that the methods with which Robinson Crusoe characterizes the non-European settings operate less explicitly/more covertly than they might otherwise.

Creating a list of references to dates within Robinson Crusoe immediately revealed an interesting error: all instances of "Friday" were interpreted as dates rather than as a person's name. After correcting this error and placing instances of "Friday" in the list of people rather than the list of dates, Friday is revealed as the most frequently named character, surpassing the protagonist. However, examining this in a denaturalized list format highlights the fact that "Friday" is not ordinarily a person's name. In the narrative, there is already considerable dehumanization when Crusoe names Friday (as well as establishing a new, self-aggrandizing title for himself), but considering that the total instances of "Friday" in the text surpass all other references to date and time put together, this leads me to wonder if the repetition of "Friday" subconsciously reinforces a paradigm where Friday is categorized as less than human, in opposition to Crusoe and the other characters. Another potentially significant point of interest revealed by these lists is that the list of locations was by far the longest. It could be argued that time was an equally vital factor to the core of the events that occur during the novel, consideration that the extreme length of time Crusoe spends stranded is essential, but location is explicitly referenced more often. It is possible that this reflects the nature of Robinson Crusoe as a proto-colonial text, where the geographical spread of empire is key. However, time is also essential to imperialist ideology, especially in terms of narratives of progress and development, so it is also possible that this is not a relevant observation.