Deprecated: __autoload() is deprecated, use spl_autoload_register() instead in /home/rachelsa/rise18.rachelsagnerbuurma.org/external/htmlpurifier-lite/library/HTMLPurifier.autoload.php on line 17

Warning: ini_set(): Headers already sent. You cannot change the session module's ini settings at this time in /home/rachelsa/rise18.rachelsagnerbuurma.org/Idno/Core/Session.php on line 22

Warning: ini_set(): Headers already sent. You cannot change the session module's ini settings at this time in /home/rachelsa/rise18.rachelsagnerbuurma.org/Idno/Core/Session.php on line 23

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /home/rachelsa/rise18.rachelsagnerbuurma.org/external/htmlpurifier-lite/library/HTMLPurifier.autoload.php:17) in /home/rachelsa/rise18.rachelsagnerbuurma.org/Idno/Core/Session.php on line 25

Warning: ini_set(): Headers already sent. You cannot change the session module's ini settings at this time in /home/rachelsa/rise18.rachelsagnerbuurma.org/Idno/Core/Session.php on line 26

Warning: ini_set(): Headers already sent. You cannot change the session module's ini settings at this time in /home/rachelsa/rise18.rachelsagnerbuurma.org/Idno/Core/Session.php on line 27

Warning: ini_set(): Headers already sent. You cannot change the session module's ini settings at this time in /home/rachelsa/rise18.rachelsagnerbuurma.org/Idno/Core/Session.php on line 28

Warning: ini_set(): Headers already sent. You cannot change the session module's ini settings at this time in /home/rachelsa/rise18.rachelsagnerbuurma.org/Idno/Core/Session.php on line 29

Warning: session_set_save_handler(): Cannot change save handler when headers already sent in /home/rachelsa/rise18.rachelsagnerbuurma.org/Idno/Data/AbstractSQL.php on line 86

Warning: session_name(): Cannot change session name when headers already sent in /home/rachelsa/rise18.rachelsagnerbuurma.org/Idno/Core/Session.php on line 45

Warning: session_start(): Cannot start session when headers already sent in /home/rachelsa/rise18.rachelsagnerbuurma.org/Idno/Core/Session.php on line 46

Warning: session_cache_limiter(): Cannot change cache limiter when headers already sent in /home/rachelsa/rise18.rachelsagnerbuurma.org/Idno/Core/Session.php on line 47

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /home/rachelsa/rise18.rachelsagnerbuurma.org/external/htmlpurifier-lite/library/HTMLPurifier.autoload.php:17) in /home/rachelsa/rise18.rachelsagnerbuurma.org/Idno/Common/Page.php on line 57

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /home/rachelsa/rise18.rachelsagnerbuurma.org/external/htmlpurifier-lite/library/HTMLPurifier.autoload.php:17) in /home/rachelsa/rise18.rachelsagnerbuurma.org/Idno/Common/Page.php on line 58

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /home/rachelsa/rise18.rachelsagnerbuurma.org/external/htmlpurifier-lite/library/HTMLPurifier.autoload.php:17) in /home/rachelsa/rise18.rachelsagnerbuurma.org/Idno/Core/Webmention.php on line 376

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /home/rachelsa/rise18.rachelsagnerbuurma.org/external/htmlpurifier-lite/library/HTMLPurifier.autoload.php:17) in /home/rachelsa/rise18.rachelsagnerbuurma.org/Idno/Core/Webmention.php on line 377

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /home/rachelsa/rise18.rachelsagnerbuurma.org/external/htmlpurifier-lite/library/HTMLPurifier.autoload.php:17) in /home/rachelsa/rise18.rachelsagnerbuurma.org/Idno/Core/PubSubHubbub.php on line 41

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /home/rachelsa/rise18.rachelsagnerbuurma.org/external/htmlpurifier-lite/library/HTMLPurifier.autoload.php:17) in /home/rachelsa/rise18.rachelsagnerbuurma.org/Idno/Core/PubSubHubbub.php on line 42

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /home/rachelsa/rise18.rachelsagnerbuurma.org/external/htmlpurifier-lite/library/HTMLPurifier.autoload.php:17) in /home/rachelsa/rise18.rachelsagnerbuurma.org/Idno/Common/Page.php on line 998

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /home/rachelsa/rise18.rachelsagnerbuurma.org/external/htmlpurifier-lite/library/HTMLPurifier.autoload.php:17) in /home/rachelsa/rise18.rachelsagnerbuurma.org/external/bonita/includes/Bonita/Templates.php on line 170

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /home/rachelsa/rise18.rachelsagnerbuurma.org/external/htmlpurifier-lite/library/HTMLPurifier.autoload.php:17) in /home/rachelsa/rise18.rachelsagnerbuurma.org/templates/default/shell.tpl.php on line 5

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /home/rachelsa/rise18.rachelsagnerbuurma.org/external/htmlpurifier-lite/library/HTMLPurifier.autoload.php:17) in /home/rachelsa/rise18.rachelsagnerbuurma.org/templates/default/shell.tpl.php on line 6
Rise of the Novel 2018
Skip to main content

Metadata for Evelina and Friends

3 min read

The previous computational exercise introduced several interesting questions about the evolution of literary works over time, especially with respect to various narrative forms and titles of works. I was interested in using the Early Novels Database source (focusing specifically on metrics: NarrativeForm and TitleNouns) to re-evaluate these previous hypotheses.

The visualizations that I was most interested in creating were: 1) narrative form with respect to date of publication and 2) nouns in titles and adjectives in titles with respect to date of publication. Google Fusion Tables, while able to categorize all of the works into discrete subcategories, was generally less useful for tracking patterns and changes over time.

An example of my attempt to visualize different narrative forms over time:

Because Fusion Tables' visualizations are optimized for categorical data, I shifted my approach and attempted to, instead, map the various PubLocations of the works. Despite having over 850 rows of metadata, the mapping tool created fewer than 10 pins on the physical map. My primary concern with this mode of visualization is that it lacks any indication of frequency. For example, the city of London has one pin on the map, but after a closer examination of the metadata in the database, over 740 works have PubLocation set to London. This means that our visualized map has eliminated the ability to understand which publication locations were predominant over others. To a viewer who is blind to the actual data, Dublin (in which 90 works were published) is equally significant as a publishing location as London (in which 700+ works were published). Further, the more minute bugs that exist in computational tools like Fusion Tables are still present, such as the mapping of "Oxford" and "Bath" to the US. I quickly modified these fields in my copy of the database to "Oxford, UK" and "Bath, UK," which corrected the problem in the physical map. Still, these imperfections in computational translations cannot always be detected qualitatively by users.

Next, in hopes of visualizing the data that I was originally interested in exploring, I created a word cloud of different nouns in the titles of works. I found that the most frequently occuring nouns were: volume, story, history, adventure, volume, letter, edition, life, series, and novel. Many of these words appeared to serve the functional purpose of providing additional detail on the form of the novel, rather than the content of the work itself. A quick review of the database seemed to confirm this hypothesis, with many titles of works including details such as "A Novel," "Year [Publication Date]," and "A Series of Letters." In order to get a better sense of the content that was produced during this period, I parsed through and cleaned my copy of the metadata in Fusion Tables, filtering out words that denote form. After doing this, the most frequently found nouns in titles were: world, love, manner, death, sea, war, friend, sex, spy.

This exercise has demonstrated that depending on the actual form of the values in the data set (e.g. sentence, category, boolean), different data visualization and analysis tools may be most appropriate and in some cases, may even conceal important details to the detriment of the end-user.

Assignment 2

2 min read

Comparing the two maps of Crusoe’s voyage—one with a map contemporary to the novel’s publication, one with more accurate and updated geography—revealed that the early map did not accurately show Crusoe’s voyage in the Caribbean, which is strange. He went among many islands, yet the dotted lines show he only went to the northern coast of South America. Could the mapper have confused the West Indies with the East Indies? But of more interest to me is the density of pinpoints in Europe. This is a detail we can’t see on the map of the voyage that My Maps allows us to analyze. Crusoe’s extensive lists of his stops in Europe tell us that Defoe was careful to list these cities accurately (they’re mistaken much, much less by MyMaps than are locations in the Caribbean and Africa). With Gallagher’s argument on the rise of fictionality in mind, we can postulate that this is part of an effort to convince readers of the truthfulness and accuracy of Crusoe/Defoe’s account, as he does in the preface. Readers are likely to know European geography well, but not other places abroad, so he makes sure not to invent European places.

 

Old Map, New Map (Assignment 2)

1 min read

The map from The Farther Adventures of Robinson Crusoe is striking in the division it suggests between the Old World and the New World. It shows us two views of the same sphere, but the two-dimensional depiction leaves us with the impression that these halves of the world are all but separate, joined only at the equator. I wonder what we might glean from the map's presentation about eighteenth-century readers' conceptions of Crusoe's voyages--particularly relative to our own. Would they have considered Crusoe's trip from West Africa to Brazil especially meaningful? How would that square with Defoe's cursory treatment of the trip in the text (29)? What might a specifically twenty-first-century map (e.g., a Google map with locations marked) suggest about contemporary understandings of Robinson Crusoe's geography? Perhaps, I could argue, it betrays a certain expectation of geographical exactitude in adventure narratives. And perhaps it shows that the present-day reader's perception of locations has been flattened, with cities to be marked with the same blue tags as continents.

Assignment 2

2 min read

Even a cursory glance at the map included in "The Farther Adventures of Robinson Crusoe" is enough to guess both the time period and the perspective the book is written from. It's a map made by a colonizer, someone who sees Africa as an opportunity and its people as a bountiful resource ready to be plundered. The fact that one of the countries is called "Negroland" really drives home how little they cared for the cultural identity of these people, how they reduced them to commodities and nothing more. There's a chilling moment in "Robinson Crusoe" where the titular character, after being saved by the Portugese captain, is approached with a proposition by some planters and merchants. Having heard his story about encountering the people of Guinea, they want to sail there and enslave the inhabitants. They ask Crusoe to come along and manage the trading. Bear in mind that these are people who offered Crusoe and Xury aid, who showed nothing but kindness. But this doesn't deter Crusoe. He has no qualms with enslaving the people who helped him, his only concern being that it's a big risk to just take a voyage when he's already got a good thing going. This essentially sums up Crusoe's attitude throughout the novel: indifferent. Apathetic. It's not that he hates these people, he just doesn't care about them. He doesn't see them as human beings worth empathizing with or considering. It's attitudes like these that enabled atrocities like imperialism, and hangs over the novel and this map like an ugly cloud.

Mapping Robinson Crusoe

2 min read

When mapping our data from the Stanford NER to Google Maps, I was most interested to see the predominance and specificity of locations in Europe, especially with respect to the rest of the world. These results were apparent even in my initial analysis of the locations list in NER, but are even more evident when viewing the pinpoints on a physical map, which speaks to the manner in which Google maps data.

The map included from the Further Adventures of Robinson Crusoe contains visible details of globalization, travel, and voyage in highly visual aspects, from the font and the inclusion of latitude/longitude lines, to the names of small bodies of water and the sketching of various terrains. This image, in my opinion, seems like the journey that Robinson Crusoe would want to preserve as representative of his narrative.

The map that is reflected on Google Maps, however, feels like a more realistic representation of Crusoe's journey. Throughout the text, he refers to foreign territory as essentially "uninhabited islands," which we are able to see, even on the title page of the book. He does not give names to these places, as it would be almost antithetical to the theme of the text: of a man on a solitary journey to the vast unknown. Many of the pinpoints are actually centered on the final leg of his journey, when he is traveling back home through Europe. I found these contrasts to be interesting, but moreover, important in understanding Crusoe's sentiments towards places that are both familiar and unfamiliar to him.

Crusoe and GoogleMyMaps

2 min read

I’d expected that some of the locations Crusoe references in the novel wouldn’t show up on the Google map I created for this activity, but I was still surprised at the sheer amount of entries which couldn’t be shown on the map—almost a quarter of the whole locations list was excluded, and while I can see how entries like “New,” “Bible,” and “providence” can’t be traced to physical locations, I can’t tell what kept Dunkirk and England from being added onto the map. The name and spelling variations which prevented certain locations from appearing on the map were also interesting (I especially liked the paired “Havannah” and “Havanna”), and entries like “New Spain” and “St. Salvador” provided a clear contrast between the increasingly colonial world and not-yet-standardized English of Robinson Crusoe and the present day. While this exercise couldn’t produce a comprehensive map of every location referenced in the novel, the map and list of “unmappable” items which exist are a weird and interesting window into the novel in their own right.